At first they are moderate in scope, then they become radical to excess and finally they are brought to abrupt conclusions by the emergence of a strong man to restore order. The French Revolution brought about great changes in the society and government of France. The revolution, which lasted from toalso had far-reaching effects on the rest of Europe. However, it ended supreme rule by French kings and strengthened the middle class.
In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: State, Class, and Ideology in the Iranian Revolution Misagh Parsa bio Sociologists have often explained the Iranian revolution in terms of an ideologically driven movement. Some have argued that in the years preceding the revolution Iranians adopted an ideology that favored fundamentalist interpretations of Islam, which explained the establishment of theocracy.
Said Amir Arjomand, for example, discounted economic interest and social class in the revolution and instead highlighted ideology, tradition, and legitimacy. According to Arjomand, rapid social change led to dislocation, normative disturbance, and disorientation.
As the central authority disintegrated, the clergy extended its religious authority to the vacuum created in the political sphere and assumed leadership. Specific features of Shiite Islam such as the theodicy of suffering, the martyrdom of Imam Husayn, and Shiite millenarianism enabled the clergy to harness traditional religious sentiments in the struggle against the regime.
According to Skocpol, the Islamic clergy, who led the bazaars, could claim as well or better than the monarchy to represent authentically the will of the Hidden Imam.
The succession phase (–) was an intense political and ideological tug–of–war between radical ideologues and veteran cadres over whether to continue or curtail the policies of the Cultural Revolution. The July Revolution, or the French Revolution of , was a revolt by the middle class against Bourbon King Charles X which forced him out of office and replaced him with the Orleanist King Louis-Philippe (the "July Monarchy"). The French Revolution: The Radical Stage, Ten years after , the French Revolution had largely become in public opinion that very special something which eluded [Benjamin] Constant's analysis: a universalist nationalism, in which the historian can discern its component elements of anti-aristocratic passion and rationalism.
Finally, Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini himself presented an ideologically driven analysis of the Iranian revolution when he remarked: No one would give his life for better agriculture.
Dignity is better than full bellies.
Iranian masses have fought only for God not worldly affairs. Some analyses are reductionist and oversimplify the complexity of the revolutionary struggles.
Other analyses are clearly tautological. Both genres of explanation largely ignore the complexity of the revolutionary processes and struggles. The fact that Iranians formed a broad coalition against the monarchy and overthrew the government does not mean that Iranians lived in urban communities that enabled them to mobilize and revolt.
In fact, even the bazaar was highly stratified along economic dimensions, generating a great deal of conflicts in the years prior to the revolutionary struggles.
Bazaaris did not constitute traditional communities with the Islamic clergy leading their political activities. In fact, bazaar politics diverged at times from that of the clergy in the decades prior to the revolution.
As we shall see, the major players during the revolutionary struggles were not uprooted or disoriented individuals negatively affected by large-scale social transformations. While large-scale transformations did uproot segments of the population, the very process of uprooting actually undermined the solidarity structures of these newly urbanized groups and reduced their capacity to act collectively.
Empirical evidence does not support any significant role in the revolution by uprooted populations.
|Palmer Marxism was born in European history. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels elaborated the materialist concept of history out of engagements with German philosophy, French socialism, and British political economy.|
|Project MUSE - State, Class, and Ideology in the Iranian Revolution||The country was restructuring its government in a forceful and bloodless manner, while the tyrant King Louis the XVI agreed to the demands of the masses albeit without much choice.|
|Marxism and Radical History | srmvision.com||Palmer Marxism was born in European history.|
|The Radical Stage of The French Revolution, History Other - srmvision.com||The Fourth Dalecarlian rebellion in Sweden. The Dagohoy rebellion in the Philippines that lasted for 85 years.|
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View freely available titles:The Radical Stage of The French Revolution () By the end of , Europe was preparing to witness the end of a seemingly triumphant revolution in France.
The country was restructuringits government in a forceful and bloodless manner, while the tyrant KingLouis the XVI agreed to the demands of the masses (albeit without muchchoice).
The revolution gradually grew more radical-that is more open to extreme and violent change. Radical leaders came into prominence. In the Convention, they were known as the mountain because they sat on the high benches at the rear of the hall during meetings. French Revolution - Radical Stage By the end of , Europe was preparing to witness the end of a seemingly triumphant revolution in France. The country was restructuring its government in a forceful and bloodless manner, while the tyrant King Louis the XVI agreed to the demands of the mas. -Giroudins, most radical of the government.-Wanted the END of monarchs-Very radical thinkers, Jean Paul Marat, Georges Danton, Maximillien Robespierre.
-Giroudins, most radical of the government.-Wanted the END of monarchs-Very radical thinkers, Jean Paul Marat, Georges Danton, Maximillien Robespierre.
French Revolution - Radical Stage By the end of , Europe was preparing to witness the end of a seemingly triumphant revolution in France.
The country was restructuring its government in a forceful and bloodless manner, while the tyrant King Louis the XVI agreed to the demands of the mas.
The French Revolution challenged political, social and cultural norms in European society. Politically, the governmental structure of the Revolution moved from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy to a republic and finally to an oligarchy. The succession phase (–) was an intense political and ideological tug–of–war between radical ideologues and veteran cadres over whether to continue or curtail the policies of the Cultural Revolution.
The French revolution leading up to prepared a state of desperate cry outs from the sans-culottes, outraged by the widespread poverty and a general hatred of wealth left by the moderate stage before which left many people unhappy, because they and their children were starving while the nobles and clergy were having grand feasts.