Military history of the United States The history of the U. Armed Forces dates to 14 Junewith the creation of the Continental Armyeven before the Declaration of Independence marked the establishment of the United States. The Continental Navyestablished on 13 Octoberand Continental Marinesestablished on 10 Novemberwere created in close succession by the Second Continental Congress in order to defend the new nation against the British Empire in the American Revolutionary War.
Inthe indigenous tribes of Pontiac 's Confederacy lay siege to Fort Detroita British fort on the American frontier. The beginning of the United States military lies in civilian frontier settlers, armed for hunting and basic survival in the wilderness.
These were organized into local militias for small military operations, mostly against Native American tribes but also to resist possible raids by the small military forces of neighboring European colonies. They relied on the British regular Army and Navy for any serious military operation.
Instead the colony asked for and paid volunteers, many of whom were also militia members. Beginning inthe colonies became involved in a series of wars between Great Britain and France for control of North America, the most important of which were Queen Anne's Warin which the British conquered French colony Acadiaand the final French and Indian War —63 when Britain was victorious over all the French colonies in North America.
This final war was to give thousands of colonists, including Virginia colonel George Washingtonmilitary experience which they put to use during the American Revolutionary War. Spanish Alarm In the struggle for control of North America, the contest between Great Britain and France was the vital one, the conflict with Spain, a declining power, important but secondary.
This latter conflict reached its height in the " War of Jenkins Ear ," a prelude to the War of Austrian Successionwhich began in and pitted the British and their American colonists against the Spanish. Its most notable episode, however, was a British expedition mounted in Jamaica against Cartagenathe main port of the Spanish colony in Colombia.
The mainland colonies furnished a regiment to participate in the assault as British Regulars under British command.
The expedition ended in disaster, resulting from climate, disease, and the bungling of British commanders, and only about of over 3, Americans who participated ever returned to their homes.
The battle was the last major land engagement in the war, with the British Army's defeat at Yorktown prompting the British to negotiate an end to the conflict. Ongoing political tensions between Great Britain and the thirteen colonies reached a crisis in when the British placed the province of Massachusetts under martial law after the Patriots protested taxes they regarded as a violation of their constitutional rights as Englishmen.
When shooting began at Lexington and Concord in Aprilmilitia units from across New England rushed to Boston and bottled up the British in the city. The Continental Congress appointed George Washington as commander-in-chief of the newly created Continental Armywhich was augmented throughout the war by colonial militia.
He drove the British out of Boston but in late summer they returned to New York and nearly captured Washington's army. Meanwhile, the revolutionaries expelled British officials from the 13 states, and declared themselves an independent nation on 4 July With the use of the Royal Navythe British were able to capture coastal cities, but control of the countryside eluded them.
A British sortie from Canada in ended with the disastrous surrender of a British army at Saratoga. With the coming in of General von Steubenthe training and discipline along Prussian lines began, and the Continental Army began to evolve into a modern force. France and Spain then entered the war against Great Britain as Allies of the US, ending its naval advantage and escalating the conflict into a world war.
The Netherlands later joined France, and the British were outnumbered on land and sea in a world war, as they had no major allies apart from Indian tribes, Loyalists and Hessians.
A shift in focus to the southern American states in resulted in a string of victories for the British, but General Nathanael Greene engaged in guerrilla warfare and prevented them from making strategic headway.
The main British army was surrounded by Washington's American and French forces at Yorktown inas the French fleet blocked a rescue by the Royal Navy. The British then sued for peace. Washington's surprise crossing of the Delaware River in December was a major comeback after the loss of New York City; his army defeated the British in two battles and recaptured New Jersey.
George Washington[ edit ] General George Washington —99 proved an excellent organizer and administrator, who worked successfully with Congress and the state governors, selecting and mentoring his senior officers, supporting and training his troops, and maintaining an idealistic Republican Army.
His biggest challenge was logistics, since neither Congress nor the states had the funding to provide adequately for the equipment, munitions, clothing, paychecks, or even the food supply of the soldiers. As a battlefield tactician Washington was often outmaneuvered by his British counterparts.
As a strategist, however, he had a better idea of how to win the war than they did. The British sent four invasion armies. Washington's strategy forced the first army out of Boston inand was responsible for the surrender of the second and third armies at Saratoga and Yorktown He limited the British control to New York and a few places while keeping Patriot control of the great majority of the population.
As the war ended, Washington watched proudly as the final British army quietly sailed out of New York City in Novembertaking the Loyalist leadership with them. Washington astonished the world when, instead of seizing power, he retired quietly to his farm in Virginia. Following the American Revolutionary Warthe United States faced potential military conflict on the high seas as well as on the western frontier.
The United States was a minor military power during this time, having only a modest army, marine corps, and navy. A traditional distrust of standing armies, combined with faith in the abilities of local militia, precluded the development of well-trained units and a professional officer corps.You should not have a favorite weapon Miyamoto Musashi, A Book of Five Rings If there is one attitude more dangerous than to assume that a future war will be just like the last one, it is to imagine that it will be so utterly different that we can afford to ignore all the lessons of the last one.
You should not have a favorite weapon Miyamoto Musashi, A Book of Five Rings If there is one attitude more dangerous than to assume that a future war will be just like the last one, it is to imagine that it will be so utterly different that we can afford to ignore all the lessons of the last one.
The military history of the United States spans a period of over two centuries. During those years, the United States evolved from a new nation fighting Great Britain for independence (–), through the monumental American Civil War (–) and, after collaborating in triumph during World War II (–), to the world's sole remaining superpower from the late 20th century to.
Basic Training Chain of Command. Everyone in the military has a chain of command. The chain of command is used to issue orders (downward) and to ask for clarification and resolve problems (upward). Thus at Venice the College, even in the absence of the Doge, is called "Most Serene Prince." The Palatine of Posen, father of the King of Poland, Duke of Lorraine.
Basic Training Chain of Command. Everyone in the military has a chain of command. The chain of command is used to issue orders (downward) and to ask for clarification and resolve problems (upward).