Ray Bradbury, Fahrenheit F.
Reviews and discussions on Books we are reading in the groups Tuesday, 21 April Beowulf What could be a more promising poetic project than the greatest of early English poems, Beowulf, newly translated by arguably the greatest of living poets writing in English, Seamus Heaney?
Heaney has chosen the plain, prosaic yet subtly cadenced vernacular of his Northern Irish roots as the poetic voice into which he renders this famous Anglo-Saxon fabular epic of a dragon-slaying Danish warrior.
The result is an engaging evocation of the highly alliterative, densely metaphorical texture of Anglo-Saxon verse, which is famously hard to capture in modern English poetic forms.
Commonly cited as one of the most important works of Anglo-Saxon literature, Beowulf has been the subject of much scholarly study, theory, speculation, discourse, and, at lines, has been noted for its length.
In the poem, Beowulf, a hero of the Geats, battles three antagonists: Beowulf is fatally wounded in the final battle, and after his death he is buried in a barrow in Geatland by his retainers. Provenance The earliest known owner is the 16th century scholar Laurence Nowell, after whom the manuscript is named, though its official designation is Cotton Vitellius A.
It suffered damage in the Cotton Library fire at Ashburnham House in Since then, parts of the manuscript have crumbled along with many of the letters. Rebinding efforts, though saving the manuscript from much degeneration, have nonetheless covered up other letters of the poem, causing further loss.
Kevin Kiernan, Professor of English at the University of Kentucky is foremost in the computer digitization and preservation of the manuscript the Electronic Beowulf Projectusing fiber optic backlighting to further reveal lost letters of the poem.
The poem is known only from a single manuscript, which is estimated to date from close to AD He dated the work to the reign of Canute the Great.
The earliest extant reference to the first foliation of the Nowell Codex was made sometime between and by Franciscus Junius the younger. The owner of the codex before Nowell remains a mystery.
In the letter to Wanley, Hickes responds to an apparent charge against Smith, made by Wanley, that Smith had failed to mention the Beowulf script when cataloguing Cotton MS.
Hickes replies to Wanley "I can find nothing yet of Beowulph. The two scribesThe Beowulf manuscript was transcribed from an original by two scribes: Scribe A and Scribe B, the latter of whom took over at line The handwriting of the two scribes is ill-matched.
The script of Scribe B is archaic. Both scribes proofread their work, and Scribe B even proofread the work of Scribe A. The work of Scribe B bears a striking resemblance to the work of the first scribe of the Blickling homilies, and so much so that it is believed they derive from the same scriptorium.
He made one himself, and had another done by a professional copyist who knew no Anglo-Saxon. Since that time, the manuscript has crumbled further, and the Thorkelin transcripts remain a prized secondary source for Beowulf scholars.
The recovery of at least letters can be attributed to these transcripts. Their accuracy has been called into question, however e. Authorship and date Beowulf was written in England, but is set in Scandinavia. It has variously been dated to between the 8th and the early 11th centuries. It is an epic poem told in historical perspective; a story of epic events and of great people of a heroic past.
Although its author is unknown, its themes and subject matter are generally believed to have been formed through oral tradition, the passing down of stories by scops Old English poets and it is considered partly historical.
Opinion differs as to whether the composition of the poem is contemporary with its transcription, or whether the poem was composed at an earlier time and orally transmitted for many years, and then transcribed at a later date.
Lord felt strongly the manuscript represents the transcription of a performance, though likely taken at more than one sitting.
Kiernan argues on the basis of paleographical and codicological evidence, that the poem is contemporary with the manuscript. Kiernan argues against an 8th century provenance because this would still require that the poem be transmitted by Anglo-Saxons through the Viking Age, holds that the paleographic and codicological evidence encourages the belief that Beowulf is an 11th century composite poem, and states that Scribe A and Scribe B are the authors and that Scribe B is the more poignant of the two.
The 11th century date is due to scholars who argue that, rather than transcription of the tale from the oral tradition by a literate monk, Beowulf reflects an original interpretation of the story by th e poet. Debate over oral tradition The question of whether Beowulf was passed down through the oral tradition prior to its present manuscript form has been the subject of much debate, and involves more than the mere matter of how it was composed.
Rather, given the implications of the theory of Oral-Formulaic Composition and Oral tradition, the question concerns how the poem is to be understood, and what sorts of interpretations are legitimate.
Scholarly discussion about Beowulf in the context of the oral tradition was extremely active throughout the s and s. The debate might be framed starkly as follows:Anglo Saxon Epic Essay Examples.
34 total results. Analysis of the Epic Beowulf. 1, words. An Overview of the Concept of Continuum of Beowulf, an Anglo-Saxon Epic. 1, words. 2 pages. An Overview of the Anglo-Saxon Epic Beowulf as the Most Important Work of Old English Literature.
1, words. now called Anglo-Saxon civilization. The people of the Anglo-Saxon period spoke a language known as Old English, the language in which Beowulf was composed. Old English bears little resemblance to Modern English and so must be translated for readers today. By the time Beowulf was written, the Anglo-Saxons had also converted to Christianity.
Beowulf is written in "appositional style," meaning the appositives and appositive phrases function both as a formulaic device in the poem and as a mnemonic for the Anglo Saxon poet, the scop.
Thus, having students work with appositives and reading about them is very fitting to Beowulf. Beowulf Beowulf was written by a Anglo-Saxon Scop, or storyteller, and tells a story about a hero, Beowulf, who comes to help the Danes fight the dreaded Grendal.
Beowulf is a classic epic hero and is honored by being passed down in the story. Gale Owen-Crocker (Professor of Anglo-Saxon, University of Manchester) in The Four Funerals in Beowulf () argues that a passage in the poem, commonly known as “The Lay of the Last Survivor” (lines –66), is an additional srmvision.com of existence: manuscript suffered damage from fire in At that time in Anglo-Saxon society, fate was an important concept and was seen as set -- something that would rarely change.
But Beowulf says that courage has the power to change a man's fate.