Emile Zola The Dreyfus Affair was a political scandal, which polarized French society on a number of levels.
After a closed trial, he was found guilty of treason and sentenced to prison for life. He was deported to Devil's Island. At that time, the opinion of the French political class was unanimously unfavourable towards Dreyfus.
Certain of the injustice of the sentence, the family of the Captain, through his brother Mathieuworked with the journalist Bernard Lazare to prove his innocence.
Meanwhile Colonel Georges Picquarthead of counter-espionage, found evidence in March indicating that the real traitor was Major Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy.
The General Staffhowever, refused to reconsider its judgment and transferred Picquart to North Africa. In July Dreyfus' family contacted the President of the Senate Auguste Scheurer-Kestner to draw attention to the tenuousness of the evidence against Dreyfus. Scheurer-Kestner reported three months later that he was convinced of the innocence of Dreyfus and also persuaded Georges Clemenceaua former MP and then a newspaper reporter.
While the circle of Dreyfusards widened, in January two nearly simultaneous events gave a national dimension to the case: France became increasingly divided over the case, and the issue continued to be hotly debated until the end of the century.
Antisemitic riots erupted in more than twenty French cities. There were several deaths in Algiers. The Republic was shaken, which prompted a sense that the Dreyfus Affair had to be resolved to restore calm and protect the stability of the nation.
Despite the intrigues of the army to quash the case, the first judgment against Dreyfus was annulled by the Supreme Court after a thorough investigation and a new court-martial was held at Rennes in Despite increasingly robust evidence to the contrary, Dreyfus was convicted again and sentenced to ten years of hard labour, though the sentence was commuted due to extenuating circumstances.
It was only in that his innocence was officially recognized through a decision without recourse by the Supreme Court. He died in The implications of this case were numerous and affected all aspects of French public life.
In politics, the affair established the triumph of the Third Republic and became a founding myth ;  in the renewal of nationalismin the military.
In religion, it slowed the reform of French Catholicism and republican integration of Catholics; and in social, legal, press, diplomatic and cultural life. It was during the affair that the term intellectual was coined.
The affair engendered numerous antisemitic demonstrations, which in turn affected emotions within the Jewish communities of Central and Western Europe.
These demonstrations affected the international movement of Zionism by persuading one of its founding fathers, Theodor Herzlthat the Jews must leave Europe and establish their own state.
Political[ edit ] Inthe Third Republic was twenty-four years old. The elections of were focused on the "social question" and resulted in a Republican victory just under half the seats against the conservative right and the reinforcement of the Radicals about seats and Socialists about 50 seats.
The opposition of the Radicals and Socialists resulted in a centrist government with policies oriented towards economic protectionism, a certain indifference to social issues, a willingness to break international isolation, the Russian alliance, and development of the colonial empire.
This instability coincided with an equally unstable presidency: His government faced the opposition of the left and of some Republicans including the Progressive Union and made sure to keep the support of the right.
He sought to appease religious, social, and economic tensions and conducted a fairly conservative policy. He succeeded in improving stability, and it was under this stable government that the Dreyfus Affair occurred.
The traumatic defeat in seemed far away, but a vengeful spirit remained. Many participants in the Dreyfus Affair were Alsatian. The army had recovered from the defeat but many of its officers were aristocrats and monarchists.
Cult of the flag and contempt for the parliamentary republic prevailed in the army. Over the previous ten years the army had experienced a significant shift in its twofold aim to democratize and modernize.
The period was also marked by an arms race that primarily affected artillery. Spying as a tool for secret war was a novelty as an organised activity in the late 19th century.
The Statistics Section was created in but consisted of only a handful of officers and civilians. Its military mission was clear: The arms race created an acute atmosphere of intrigue in French counter-espionage from One of the missions of the section was to spy on the German Embassy at Rue de Lille in Paris to thwart any attempt to transmit important information to the Germans.
This was especially critical since several cases of espionage had already hit the headlines of newspapers, which were fond of sensationalism. Thus in the archivist Boutonnet was convicted for selling plans of shells that used melinite.The Dreyfus Affair in France The Dreyfus Affair began in with the unjust conviction of Alfred Dreyfus, a French Artillery Officer, for the crime of treason.
The Affair was to last 12 years, and some historians would argue that it split the country in two.. The Dreyfus Affair was a political scandal, which polarized French society on a number of levels.
The conviction of Jewish Artillery officer, Alfred Dreyfus raised many questions regarding the power of the French War Office, and called to attention the corruption within the French legal system. The Dreyfus affair Essays: Over , The Dreyfus affair Essays, The Dreyfus affair Term Papers, The Dreyfus affair Research Paper, Book Reports.
ESSAYS, term and research papers available for UNLIMITED access. This essay evaluates the Dreyfus affair and has detailed paragraphs involving the event. Topics this document covers: Crime France Dreyfus affair Human behavior The Dreyfus Affair Alfred Dreyfus Political history of France French Third Republic J'accuse.
To what extent was anti-Semitism the motive force behind the Dreyfus Affair? Essay. Described as a ‘catalyst for tensions in French society’ (Kedward), the Dreyfus affair divided France dramatically - To what extent was anti-Semitism the motive force behind the Dreyfus Affair?Essay introduction.
On Monday 15 October , Alfred Dreyfus, a junior member of the French general staff was. THE DREYFUS AFFAIR In France at the end of the year , Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish officer of the French General Staff, was accused and convicted of espionage for Germany.4/4(4).
THE DREYFUS AFFAIR In France at the end of the year , Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish officer of the French General Staff, was accused and convicted of espionage for Germany. The Dreyfus Affair This Essay The Dreyfus Affair and other 64,+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on srmvision.com Autor: review • February 25, • Essay • Words (4 Pages) • Views. The Dreyfus Affair It all started on October 15th when a French army captain named Alfred Dreyfus (), was arrested for high treason.