The University of Prague was founded inVienna inHeidelberg inCologne inErfurt inLeipzig inand Rostock in Gradually, the influence of the Italian culture crossed the Alps, and it found a soil ready for it. A difference between the Northern Renaissance and the Italian Renaissance was that, while in Italy the intellectual impulse came from above, in Germany the work began at the bottom.
Many believed that this barely literate gnome of a man, hunched over his horse, was the Second Charlemagne, whose coming had been long predicted by French and Italian prophets. Apparently, Charles himself believed this; it is recorded that, when he was chastised by Savonarola for delaying his divine mission of reform and crusade Northern renaissance Florence, the king burst into tears and soon went on his way.
He found the Kingdom of Naples easy to take and impossible to hold; frightened by local uprisings, by a new Italian coalition, and by the massing of Spanish troops in Sicily, he left Naples in the spring ofbound not for the Holy Land, as the prophecies had predicted, but for home, never to return to Italy.
In Savonarola was tortured, hanged, and burned as a false prophet for predicting that Charles would complete his mission. Conceived amid dreams of chivalric glory and crusade, the Italian expedition of Charles VIII was the venture of a medieval king—romantic, poorly planned, and totally irrelevant to the real needs of his subjects.
The French invasion of Italy marked the beginning of a new phase of European politics, during which the Valois kings of France and the Habsburgs of Germany fought each other, with the Italian states as their reluctant pawns.
For even longer Italy would be the keystone of the arch that the Habsburgs tried to erect across Europe from the Danube to the Strait of Gibraltar in order to link the Spanish and German inheritance of the emperor Charles V.
In destroying the autonomy of Italian politics, the invasions also ended the Italian state system, which was absorbed into the larger European system that now took shape.
Its members adopted the balance-of-power diplomacy first evolved by the Italians as well as the Italian practice of using resident ambassadors who combined diplomacy with the gathering of intelligence by fair means or foul. In the art of waralso, the Italians were innovators in the use of mercenary troops, cannonry, bastioned fortresses, and field fortification.
French artillery was already the best in Europe byNorthern renaissance the Spaniards developed the tercioan infantry unit that combined the most effective field fortifications and weaponry of the Italians and Swiss. Thus, old and new ways were fused in the bloody crucible of the Italian Wars.
What is the Northern Renaissance? Many people think that the Renaissance is only associated with Italian masters like Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, and Sandro Botticelli. However, this transformation touched many countries across the continent, culminating in what would be known as Northern Renaissance art. The Renaissance in the north has a distinctively different character than that of Italy and the southern srmvision.com the styles of Northern artists vary according to geography, one characteristic that is fundamental to all northern art of this period is a fondness for meticulous rendering of details. Nov 22, · The northern Renaissance Political, economic, and social background. In King Charles VIII of France led an army southward over the Alps, seeking the Neapolitan crown and glory. Many believed that this barely literate gnome of a man, hunched over his horse, was the Second Charlemagne, whose coming had been long predicted by French and Italian prophets.
Rulers who lived by medieval codes of chivalry adopted Renaissance techniques of diplomacy and warfare to satisfy their lust for glory and dynastic power. Even the lure of Italy was an old obsession; but the size and vigour of the 16th-century expeditions were new.
Rulers were now able to command vast quantities of men and resources because they were becoming masters of their own domains. The nature and degree of this mastery varied according to local circumstances; but throughout Europe the New Monarchs, as they are called, were reasserting kingship as the dominant form of political leadership after a long period of floundering and uncertainty.
To rule this vast territory, they created a professional machinery of state, converting wartime taxing privileges into permanent prerogativefreeing their royal council from supervision by the Estates-General, appointing a host of officials who crisscrossed the kingdom in the service of the crown, and establishing their right to appoint and tax the French clergy.
They did not achieve anything like complete centralization; but in Jean Bodin was able to write, in his Six Books of the Commonweal, that the king of France had absolute sovereignty because he alone in the kingdom had the power to give law unto all of his subjects in general and to every one of them in particular.
Bodin might also have made his case by citing the example of another impressive autocrat of his time, Philip II of Spain. Castile, an arid land of sheepherders, great landowning churchmen, and crusading knights, and Aragon, with its Catalan miners and its strong ties to Mediterranean Europe, made uneasy partners; but a series of rapid and energetic actions forced the process of national consolidation and catapulted the new nation into a position of world prominence for which it was poorly prepared.
Within the last decade of the 15th century, the Spaniards took the kingdom of Navarre in the north; stormed the last Muslim stronghold in Spainthe kingdom of Granada; and launched a campaign of religious unification by pressing tens of thousands of Muslims and Jews to choose between baptism and expulsion, at the same time establishing a new Inquisition under royal control.
They also sent Columbus on voyages of discovery to the Western Hemispherethereby opening a new frontier just as the domestic frontier of reconquest was closing.
Finally, the crown linked its destinies with the Habsburgs by a double marriage, thus projecting Spain into the heart of European politics.
In the following decades, Castilian hidalgos lower nobleswhose fathers had crusaded against the Moors in Spain, streamed across the Atlantic to make their fortunes out of the land and sweat of the American Indians, while others marched in the armies and sailed in the ships of their king, Charles I, who, as Charles Vwas elected Holy Roman emperor in at the age of In this youth, the vast dual inheritance of the Spanish and Habsburg empires came together.
To administer this enormous legacyhe presided over an ever-increasing bureaucracy of viceroys, governors, judges, military captains, and an army of clerks. The yield in American treasure was enormous, especially after the opening of the silver mines of Mexico and what is now Bolivia halfway through the 16th century.
By both Charles and his credit were exhausted, and he began to relinquish his titles—Spain and the Netherlands to his son Philip, Germany and the imperial title to his brother Ferdinand I.
American silver did little for Spain except to pay the wages of soldiers and sailors; the goods and services that kept the Spanish armies in the field and the ships afloat were largely supplied by foreigners, who reaped the profits.
Yet, for the rest of the century, Spain continued to dazzle the world, and few could see the chinks in the armour; this was an age of kings, in which bold deeds, not balance sheets, made history. The growth of centralized monarchy claiming absolute sovereignty over its subjects may be observed in other places, from the England of Henry VIII on the extreme west of Europe to the Muscovite tsardom of Ivan III the Great on its eastern edge, for the New Monarchy was one aspect of a more general phenomenon—a great recovery that surged through Europe in the 15th century.
No single cause can be adduced to explain it. Some historians believe it was simply the upturn in the natural cycle of growth: Once more, growing numbers of people, burgeoning cities, and ambitious governments were demanding food, goods, and services—a demand that was met by both old and new methods of production.
In agriculturethe shift toward commercial crops such as wool and grains, the investment of capital, and the emancipation of servile labour completed the transformation of the manorial system already in decline. In eastern Europe, however, the formerly free peasantry was now forced into serfdom by an alliance between the monarchy and the landed gentry, as huge agrarian estates were formed to raise grain for an expanding Western market.
Manufacturing boomed, especially of those goods used in the outfitting of armies and fleets—cloth, armour, weapons, and ships. New mining and metalworking technology made possible the profitable exploitation of the rich iron, copper, gold, and silver deposits of central Germany, Hungary, and Austria, affording the opportunity for large-scale investment of capital.
Antwerpfor example, more than doubled its population in the second half of the 15th century and doubled it again by By the Antwerp Bourse was the central money market for much of Europe.When we talk about the Northern Renaissance, what we mean is "Renaissance happenings that occurred within Europe, but outside of Italy." Because the most innovative art was created in France, the Netherlands, and Germany during this time, and because all of these places are north of Italy, the "Northern" tag has stuck.
Northern Europe’s wealthy merchants and nobles supported the art of van Eyck, Bosch, Dürer, Bruegel, and Holbein; art that invites us back to their world.
Learn for free about math, art, computer programming, economics, physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, finance, history, and more. Northern Renaissance - Comparison with the South. The humanists who defined the era: Johann Reuchlin and Ulrich von Hutten in Germany, and .
Northern Renaissance Art (): Flemish Panel-Paintings, Dutch Triptychs, German Printmaking by Jan Van Eyck, Hieronymus Bosch and Albrecht Durer. Nov 14, · Series in which Joseph Leo Koerner argues that the Renaissance in Northern Europe - more so than its Italian counterpart - laid .
The Northern Renaissance took place across Europe, but outside of Italy, in countries including France, the Netherlands, and Germany.