Textual traditions of bound manuscripts of the Sefer Torah Torah scroll are passed down providing additional vowel pointspronunciation marks and stress accents in the authentic Masoretic Text of the Jewish Bibleoften the basis for translations of the Christian Old Testament The English word tradition comes from the Latin traditio, the noun from the verb tradere to transmit, to hand over, to give for safekeeping ; it was originally used in Roman law to refer to the concept of legal transfers and inheritance. Tools to aid this process include poetic devices such as rhyme and alliteration. The stories thus preserved are also referred to as tradition, or as part of an oral tradition.
Although one can examine thousands of their laboriously-assembled structures, megalithic graves, and meticulously-crafted artwork Origins of the american traditions figurines, the greatest ponderings remain. What became of these ancient people of the Bronze to early Iron Age, and how does their existence tie in with other civilizations?
To ascertain these answers, one must begin with the nuraghi. The nuraghi towers Arguably the most well-known pieces the Nuragic left behind were their nuraghi structures or towers, of which approximately 7, have been discovered upon the island - but up to 30, may have been constructed.
Although similar in features to many other structures throughout the Mediterranean region, Sardinian constructs were most original and stately in their formation. These structures are circular, most often created with a flat, truncated rooftop similar to those of other ancient populations, but with the earliest of this classification dating back to 18th century B.
Some believe these types of rooftops were likely maintained and used as terraces. Others, however, form a conical bee-hive shape on top. Minimally-dressed stones were applied in cylindrical succession to form the building within which was typically a corridor, an inner space some nearly 40 feet in diameter and a stairwell leading to upper levels accessed via a ground level entrance.
Some more intricate dwellings additionally feature wells, ground-level silos or other spaces presumably for the storage of liquid or dry foodstuffs. The Nuraghe Arrubiu public domain Some nuraghi stand as high as ninety feet tall, such as the Nuraghe Arrubiu see picturedbut many earliest erections are of much humbler heights, and the construction plans varied considerably from simplest versions as well.
Plans of different types of nuraghi Credit: Italo Curzio The purpose of the nuraghi The purpose of these structures, the latter of which display increased mastery and efficiency in assembly, has been debated from grain silos or observatories to temples or fortressesbut artifacts discovered within some including stone tools, loom weights, hearths, cooking vessels, spindle whorls, and animal bones, to name a few lead many to the conclusion that the nuraghi were utilized as homes or for predominantly household activities.
Several of such towers with varying complexity built in close proximity to one another with a common well and courtyard, usually surrounded by megalithic walls, are widely agreed upon to have likely been bastions, necessary for territorial protection in the age.
More complex construction with bastion. Nuraghe Santu Antine, Torralba Credit: Pastures, wooded areas, mines, religious temples and other assets may have accompanied most of the more complex systems. Sadly, many of the original structures are now in ruins, possibly without prior excavation having been conducted, or have been destroyed, largely for more recent purposes of reusing the stones for other functions like roads and modernized enclosures.
These graves were likely the resting place of dozens of persons, up to possibly hundreds at some locations. With such spacious, extended burial chambers of up to sixty feet and exterior enclosures of nearly ninety feet, it is asserted that the Nuragic took great care to remain close to their dead, believing they had transformed into gods or similar heroic figures.
Adorned with various stones, holes, betyls and other decorative features with debatable spiritual or magical significance, it is widely speculated as to which inhabitants were buried within the giants' tombs.
Older tombs were likely less discriminating in the distinction of inhabitants, while more recent developments may have included smaller, more specific groups or clans.
Spiritual practices appear to have been most often related to the dead, connections to the afterlife, and rituals of water, as exemplified in the majority of architectural discoveries.
Offering benches, stairwells to sacred springs and enclosures of sacred wells are of greatest interest, as are the possible beliefs concerning the magical properties of the water therein. Substantial numbers of the Nuragic's famous Bronzetti statues have been found near or within these areas, giving credibility to the suspicion that they were left as a form of gratitude during religious rituals, or in hopes of gaining strength or prowess in certain specific life endeavors.
Bronze statuette of the Nuragic civilization public domain The artifacts and relics of the Nuragic civilization Having lived on the island for over 5, years, one must consider that the Nuragic's trade or exchange practices with other areas likely had a place of some prominence with consideration to the metals - namely bronze - being developed at the time.
Bronzetti statuettes, among other art made of stone, abundant pottery, and bronze objects of the time, were widely shared and found in similar form throughout the populations and occupied regions of the age. Most of the statuettes represented men, women, ships, animals, imaginary entities and miniature replicas of the daily tools of living.
Many were found to be in exact replication of an action assumed to be of desired spiritual intervention, especially when left near sanctuaries, such as a woman sitting with an ill child in hopes of a cure bestowed by divine forces.
Other examples are of warriors with weapons and shepherds with sheep, and even those presumed to be women of high spiritual significance, while nearly all were found to be displaying the nuragic daggers tied around the neck. Unravelling the mysterious of the Nuragics Evidence suggests that the Nuragic had connections with other parts of the world, but also sustained themselves in isolation for some periods of time.
Most references made to them was done so by later groups, primarily the Romans, and while no written evidence from them has been found, it is subsequently believed they had no written language. What little has been compiled appears to have originated centuries after their demise via the passing down of oral traditions.
Most agree that the most significant years of decline occurred before the Carthaginian conquest of the late 6th century B. Many have felt the decline of the civilization in later years meant a popular phase of turning away from Nuragic traditions in favor of others such as the Phoenician, ultimately leaving the Nuragic cultural and religious practices in the past.
In recent decades, there have been discoveries in Israel which appear to connect to immigration from this civilization, possibly linking Biblical sources to its origins.
Famous structure of the Nuragic civilization.As linguistic diversity has increased, and particularly as Spanish has become more widely spoken, language has become an important aspect of the debate over the meaning or nature of American culture.
Linguistic and cultural diversity is accepted in states such as New York and Illinois, where Spanish bilingual education is mandated in the public.
The culture of the United States of America is primarily of Western culture origin and form, but is influenced by a multicultural ethos that includes African, Native American, Asian, Polynesian, and Latin American people and their cultures. American culture is a diverse mix of customs and traditions from nearly every region of the world.
Here is a brief overview of American holidays, food, clothing and more. Christmas All about the Christmas Tree: Pagan origins, Christian adaptation, and secular status: Quotation: John Silber: "Many Americans celebrate both Christmas and . You’ll seldom see a symbolic St. Patrick on an Irish-American cemetery marker, because those symbols are rare.
But, you might see a Celtic cross, the Virgin Mary or a sacrificial lamb on an altar as well as the IHS monogram that symbolizes Jesus if the deceased Irish-American was Catholic. Dec 15, · While some rather ignorant groups in the Americas believe that the abbreviation “x-mas” is an attempt by the “dirty liberals” to “keep the Christ out of Christmas”, the true origins have a strong basis in Christianity.