For example, if follower maturity is high, the model suggests a delegating style of leadership where the leader has to provide minimal guidance. By contrast, if follower maturity is low, due to inexperience or unfamiliarity on the part of the followers, a telling style could be more appropriate in order to ensure the group has clarity on their goals and how they are expected to achieve them. Applications and Limitations of the Hersey-Blanchard Model This leadership method lets executives, managers, and other positions of authority take charge of their followers based on the acumen, understanding, and context of the group. The position and authority of the leader may be restricted by the operational chain-of-command or hierarchy for an organization, which could force them to adopt rigid styles rather than adapt to follower maturity.
Of the many that exist, the most prevalent are learning theoriessocial cognitive theorytheories of reasoned action and planned behaviourtranstheoretical model of behavior change, the health action process approach and the BJ Fogg model of behavior change. Research has also been conducted regarding specific elements of these theories, especially elements like self-efficacy that are common to several of the theories.
Self-efficacy is thought to be predictive of the amount of effort an individual will expend in initiating and maintaining a behavioural change, so although self-efficacy is not a behavioural change theory per se, it is an important element of many of the theories, including the health belief modelthe theory of planned behaviour and the health action process approach.
Learning theories and behaviour analytic theories of change[ edit ] From behaviourists such as B.
Skinner come the learning theorieswhich state that complex behaviour is learned gradually through the modification of simpler behaviours.
Imitation and reinforcement play important roles in these theories, which state that individuals learn by duplicating behaviours they observe in others and that rewards are essential to ensuring the repetition of desirable behaviour.
As each simple behaviour is established through imitation and subsequent reinforcementthe complex behaviour develops. When verbal behaviour is established the organism can learn through rule-governed behaviour and thus not all action needs to be contingency shaped. Social learning and social cognitive theory[ edit ] According to the social learning theory  more recently expanded as social cognitive theory behavioural change is determined by environmental, personal, and behavioural elements.
Each factor affects each of the others. Social learning theory focuses on the reciprocal interactions between these factors, which are hypothesised to determine behavioral change. As a result, intention is an important factor in determining behaviour and behavioural change.
Thus, personal attitude and social pressure shape intention, which is essential to performance of a behaviour and consequently behavioural change. Theory of planned behaviour[ edit ] InAjzen expanded upon the theory of reasoned action, formulating the theory of planned behaviour which also emphasises the role of intention in behaviour performance but is intended to cover cases in which a person is not in control of all factors affecting the actual performance of a behaviour.
InFishbein and Ajzen introduced the reasoned action approachthe successor of the theory of planned behaviour. Transtheoretical or stages of change model[ edit ] According to the transtheoretical model   of behavior change, also known as the stages of change model, states that there are five stages towards behavior change.
The five stages, between which individuals may transition before achieving complete change, are precontemplation, contemplation, preparation for action, action, and maintenance. At the precontemplation stage, an individual may or may not be aware of a problem but has no thought of changing their behavior.
From precontemplation to contemplation, the individual begins thinking about changing a certain behavior. During preparation, the individual begins his plans for change, and during the action stage the individual begins to exhibit new behavior consistently.
An individual finally enters the maintenance stage once they exhibit the new behavior consistently for over six months. A problem faced with the stages of change model is that it is very easy for a person to enter the maintenance stage and then fall back into earlier stages.
Health action process approach[ edit ] The health action process approach HAPA  is designed as a sequence of two continuous self-regulatory processes, a goal-setting phase motivation and a goal-pursuit phase volition.
The second phase is subdivided into a pre-action phase and an action phase. Motivational self-efficacy, outcome-expectancies and risk perceptions are assumed to be predictors of intentions.
This is the motivational phase of the model. The predictive effect of motivational self-efficacy on behaviour is assumed to be mediated by recovery self-efficacy, and the effects of intentions are assumed to be mediated by planning.
The latter processes refer to the volitional phase of the model. The different levels of ability and motivation define whether triggers for behavior change will succeed or fail. As an example trying to trigger behavior change through something difficult to do low ability will only succeed with very high motivation.
In contrast, trying to trigger behavior change through something easy to do high ability may succeed even with average motivation. This model posits that behavior is composed of three different factors: Under the FBM, for any person user to succeed at behavior change needs to be motivated, have the ability to perform the behavior and needs a trigger to perform this behavior.For child development and adults - explanation of Erik Erikson's Psychosocial theory of human development, biography, diagrams, terminology, references.
Model for understanding human psychological development. Systems theory has long been concerned with the study of complex systems (in recent times, complexity theory and complex systems have also been used as names of the field). These systems are present in the research of a variety disciplines, including biology, economics, social studies and srmvision.comly, complexity has become a natural domain of interest of real world socio .
Jul 29, · With summer upon us and the year half over, many managers and employees are engaging in that oft-criticized, much maligned, but still necessary exercise: . Equity theory, when applied to the workplace, focuses on an employee’s work compensation relationship and an employee’s attempt to reduce any perceived unfairness.
Discover strengths and weakness of the theory and implementation advice on the two main processes an individual can use to restore equity. Expectancy Theory vs Equity Theory - There is a new automated offender management system that is being put in effect at the state correctional facility.
For child development and adults – explanation of Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial theory of human development, biography, diagrams, terminology, references.