The game of softball appeared in the U. While the two sports are similar in many ways, they also contrast in a number of ways -- as does their history. This paper will examine the history of softball and show how and why it developed out of the game of baseball.
Environmentalists use the metaphor of the earth as a "spaceship" in trying to persuade countries, industries and people to stop wasting and polluting our natural resources. Since we all share life on this planet, they argue, no single person or institution has the right to destroy, waste, or use more than a fair share of its resources.
But does everyone on The u boat threat essay have an equal right to an equal share of its resources? The spaceship metaphor can be dangerous when used by misguided idealists to justify suicidal policies for sharing our resources through uncontrolled immigration and foreign aid.
In their enthusiastic but unrealistic generosity, they confuse the ethics of a spaceship with those of a lifeboat. A true spaceship would have to be under the control of a captain, since no ship could possibly survive if its course were determined by committee.
Spaceship Earth certainly has no captain; the United Nations is merely a toothless tiger, with little power to enforce any policy upon its bickering members. If we divide the world crudely into rich nations and poor nations, two thirds of them are desperately poor, and only one third comparatively rich, with the United States the wealthiest of all.
Metaphorically each rich nation can be seen as a lifeboat full of comparatively rich people. In the ocean outside each lifeboat swim the poor of the world, who would like to get in, or at least to share some of the wealth. What should the lifeboat passengers do?
First, we must recognize the limited capacity of any lifeboat. For example, a nation's land has a limited capacity to support a population and as the current energy crisis has shown us, in some ways we have already exceeded the carrying capacity of our land.
Adrift in a Moral Sea So here we sit, say 50 people in our lifeboat. To be generous, let us assume it has room for 10 more, making a total capacity of Suppose the 50 of us in the lifeboat see others swimming in the water outside, begging for admission to our boat or for handouts.
We have several options: The boat swamps, everyone drowns. Complete justice, complete catastrophe. Since the boat has an unused excess capacity of 10 more passengers, we could admit just 10 more to it. But which 10 do we let in?
How do we choose? Do we pick the best 10, "first come, first served"? And what do we say to the 90 we exclude? If we do let an extra 10 into our lifeboat, we will have lost our "safety factor," an engineering principle of critical importance.
For example, if we don't leave room for excess capacity as a safety factor in our country's agriculture, a new plant disease or a bad change in the weather could have disastrous consequences.
Suppose we decide to preserve our small safety factor and admit no more to the lifeboat. Our survival is then possible although we shall have to be constantly on guard against boarding parties.
While this last solution clearly offers the only means of our survival, it is morally abhorrent to many people. Some say they feel guilty about their good luck.
My reply is simple: The needy person to whom the guilt-ridden person yields his place will not himself feel guilty about his good luck. If he did, he would not climb aboard.
The net result of conscience-stricken people giving up their unjustly held seats is the elimination of that sort of conscience from the lifeboat. This is the basic metaphor within which we must work out our solutions.
Let us now enrich the image, step by step, with substantive additions from the real world, a world that must solve real and pressing problems of overpopulation and hunger.
The harsh ethics of the lifeboat become even harsher when we consider the reproductive differences between the rich nations and the poor nations.
The people inside the lifeboats are doubling in numbers every 87 years; those swimming around outside are doubling, on the average, every 35 years, more than twice as fast as the rich.
And since the world's resources are dwindling, the difference in prosperity between the rich and the poor can only increase. As ofthe U.
Outside our lifeboat, let us imagine another million people say the combined populations of Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Morocco, Pakistan, Thailand and the Philippines who are increasing at a rate of 3. Put differently, the doubling time for this aggregate population is 21 years, compared to 87 years for the U.
The harsh ethics of the lifeboat become harsher when we consider the reproductive differences between rich and poor.The Berlin Wall—symbol of a divided city within a divided nation within a divided continent—was grounded in decades-old historical divisions at the end of World War II.
Now with open access to the Atlantic, the U-boats presented a far greater threat than before. Destroyer patrols attempted to find U-boats and sink them. However, the U-boat captains were too skilled for this and by June , America started to organise its merchant ships into convoys – such were the losses.
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Updated: Friday, November 16, Photos/srmvision.com except as noted. Visit our regularly updated Theater and Arts Section, and plan your fall event schedule!. New galleries and art venues added for The U-Boat threat was real.
In the Germans sank merchant ships alone. The British had even used Catapult Aircraft Merchantman which had a Hawker Sea Hurricane aboard to fly a one way.
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